LEADERSHIP IN THE RIOTS
While not the main focus of the riots or the other inoculation conflicts, the leaders of the different movements did impact those around them and who sided with them. Cotton Mather is a great example of this. As mentioned, Mather claimed that those against inoculation were possessed by the Devil. This, along with other things he had said, had an impact on the people of Boston. William Douglass, also from Boston, is another good example of this. He was very adamant on leadership within the local medical community, and this impacted his public persona1. Kilpatrick and Dale were both the leaders in the Charleston inoculation conflict in 17382.
Norfolk was different. There were multiple major players from the pro-inoculation side that all played somewhat-major roles. However, the anti-inoculationists had one clear leading personality – Joseph Calvert. As mentioned, Calvert was a self-proclaimed patriot who was actively involved in both riots. While there are no clear records on who led the 1769 riot, Calvert was labeled as the leader of the 1768 mob3,4,5. He also instigated conflicts with Thomas Burke both in the Virginia Gazette and in person5. When James Parker, in his May 6th, 1769 letter to Charles Steuart, discusses how he was not worried about the court at that time, he calls out Calvert when mentioning the anti-inoculationists6. Calvert’s actions during this period could be seen as being critical in cementing the ideas of the anti-inoculation movement in Norfolk. Not only did the man “rally the troops” and form the first riot and attack pro-inoculationists without mentioning the uncertainties of inoculation, he was, and is still, seen as the representative of the anti-inoculationist movement.
- Blake, John B. “The Inoculation Controversy in Boston: 1721-1722.” New England Quarterly, 1952, 489–506.
- Gherini, Claire. “Rationalizing Disease: James Kilpatrick’s Atlantic Struggles with Smallpox Inoculation.” Atlantic Studies 7, no. 4 (2010): 421–446.
- Henderson, Patrick. “Smallpox and Patriotism: The Norfolk Riots, 1768-1769.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 73, no. 4 (1965): 413–24.
- Mason, Keith. “A Loyalist’s Journey: James Parker’s Response to the Revolutionary Crisis.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 102, no. 2 (1994): 139–66.
- Watterson, John. “Poetic Justice; Or, an Ill-Fated Epic by Thomas Burke.” The North Carolina Historical Review 55, no. 3 (1978): 339–346.
- Parker, James, May 6th, 1769.