Primary Sources

"From the Washington Federalist. Case of the Molly." Philadelphia Gazette (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) XVIII, no. 3913, May 22, 1801: [2]. Readex: America's Historical Newspapers, accessed April 18, 2019,

Letter from Benjamin Franklin to Vergennes, 7 September 1780, Founders Online, National Archives, accessed April 11, 2019,

Library of Congress. Treaty of Amity and Commerce. Library of Congress. (April 17, 2019)

The Papers of George Washington Digital Edition. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2008.

The Papers of Thomas Jefferson Digital Edition, ed. James P. McClure and J. Jefferson Looney. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, Rotunda, 2008–2019.


Secondary Sources

Buel Jr., Richard. Joel Barlow: American Citizen in a Revolutionary World. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2011.

Gaustad, Edwin S. Benjamin Franklin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

MacMaster, Richard K. The Tobacco Trade with France: Letters of Joseph Fenwick, Consul at Bordeaux, 1787-1795.Maryland Historical Magazine, March 1965.

Roberts, Priscilla H. and Roberts, Robert S. Thomas Barclay: Consul in France, Diplomat in Barbary. Rosemont Publishing and Printing Corp, 2008.

Smith, Walter Burges. America’s Diplomats and Consuls of 1776-1865: A Geographic and Biographic Dictionary of the Foreign Service from the Declaration of Independence to the End of the Civil War. Center for the Study of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Service Institute, U.S. Dept. of State, Washington, D.C., 1986.

United States Embassy in France. “Embassy and Consulates.” (accessed April 18, 2019)